Within the group of NTMs, especially the members of the M. avium and M. abscessus complex are in the focus of interest. Infections caused by those mycobacteria are difficult to treat due to drug resistances. Thus, the treatment outcome differs significantly.
Macrolides are an important component of the antimycobacterial drug therapy. However, resistances to macrolides may limit treatment options and endanger therapeutic success. One potential resistance mechanism is mediated by mutations within the rrl gene. Another mechanism that only affects the members of the M. abscessus complex is mediated by the erm(41) gene. This gene influences susceptibility against clarithromycin of the subspecies - therefore the detection of erm(41) should be part of molecular genetic resistance testing.
Aminoglycosides are also often used to treat NTM diseases. Resistance to aminoglycosides is primarily caused by mutations in the rrs gene.
Consequently, the management of NTM infections requires the rapid determination of resistance status in order to provide an appropriate therapy.
GenoType NTM-DR allows the detection of several clinically relevant NTMs including the differentiation between M. intracellulare and M. chimaera. Furthermore, the mycobacteria resistance to macrolides and aminoglycosides are also detected within the same step. Thus, GenoType NTM-DR provides crucial information as a prerequisite for an adequate therapy regimen.